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CHAPTER VII- THE ROLE OF THE CENTRAL AND REGIONAL GOVERNMENTS ON THE CHANGES OF BEHAVIOR COMMUNITY IN SANGIRAN AS THE HERITAGE SITE OF UNESCO                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Triesanto Romulo Simanjuntak
Tunjung Wijanarka
Rizki Amalia Yanuartha

Putri Hergianasari 
Cite this chapter

Simanjuntak, T. R., Wijanarka, T., Yanuartha, R. A., Hergianasari, P. (2023). Chapter VII The Role of the Central and Regional Governments on the Changes of Behavior Community in Sangiran as the Heritage Site of UNESCO. In  F. E. Atilo Batista (Ed.), Academic Research & Reviews in Art, Design, Architecture and Fashion Breaking Creative Boundaries (pp. 102-122). Ankara, Türkiye: Global Academy Publishing House.


Sangiran Prehistoric Museum is an archaeological museum located in Kalijambe, Sragen Regency, Central Java Province (Saputro et al., 2020). The location of the Sangiran Museum is located near the Sangiran ancient fossil site (Choi & Driwantoro, 2007). This area is a World Heritage Site designated by UNESCO on December 6 1996 (Titchen, 2013). This area is the Sangiran Dome which is located at the foot of Mount Lawu. The area of the Sangiran Museum is 16,675 square meters. The Sangiran Museum was founded in 1977 (Larick et al., 2001). The construction of the Sangiran Museum was carried out with the discovery of many ancient objects found in the Sangiran ancient human site area (Triyaningsih et al., 2023). The Sangiran site area was the center of ancient human life in prehistoric times. The site area contains traces of remains from two million to 200,000 years ago that can still be found today (Frayer et al., 1993).

GHR Von Koenigswald, a German paleoanthropologist who worked for the Dutch administration in Bandung in the 1930s. Koeigswald researched ancient humans and ancient animals in the Sangiran area. He found fossils of Homo erectus as well as various animal fossils. Koenigswald also trains local people to recognize fossils in the right way when finding fossils. Initially, the research results were collected at the house of Toto Marsono, Head of Krikilan Village until 1975 (Hoffman, 2010). At that time, many tourists visited the place. Then came the idea to build a museum. Initially, the Sangiran Museum was built with an area of 1000 square meters, the location of the museum is next to the Krikilan Village Hall. Building a new representative museum was carried out in 1980 because more and more fossils were found and to serve tourists. The museum building has an area of 16,675 square meters, while the building for the museum is 750 square meters (Semah et al., 2019).

The Sangiran site has been developed into a National Strategic Area. The national strategic area is a priority area for spatial planning because it has a very important relationship in terms of state influence on state sovereignty, defense and state security in terms of economy, society, culture and the environment, including areas designated as world cultural heritage sites (Suparno et al., 2021). The existence of the Sangiran Site which has high scientific, historical and cultural value also has the potential to become a cultural tourism object that is visited by many domestic and foreign tourists (Aprianto, 2019). The Sangiran Museum has had a huge influence, especially on science. New discoveries and environmental conditions that are typical of natural laboratories have made the Sangiran Museum and the Sangiran site a center for research and education (Raharjo & Gravitiani, 2012). Apart from that, the existence of the museum is also to raise awareness and historical insight into the importance of fossils for the knowledge of future generations (Sanubari & Sukmi, 2023). Thus, illegal fossil smuggling and trading activities no longer exist in Sangiran (Adi, 2013).

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